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#226 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 28 November 2003 - 05:45 AM

URPMI SOURCES MANDRAKE 9.2  

There are a few sources you can add to the package manager of Mandrake to get extra software.
Some of them everybody can add, a few ( last two ) are only for Club Members.  

See here how it's done:

Bruno, on Tips, said:

Go to a console, log in as 'su' and paste the line after the prompt and hit enter.
Now it should work and get the list . . . be patient, it takes a while.
Then as you get the prompt back, close the console ( Ctrl+d , 2x ).  

Now that we have added the source to your software manager, we can have a look at all the packages:  

Go to the MCC --> Software Management --> 'RpmDrake helps you install software packages' ( the icon with the + ). Now you will see the text : 'All packages' under the search-box., 'All packages' 'by group' change the by group in: 'by medium repository' and you will get a list with the sources you can choose from: CD1, CD2, CD3 and also the Update source and the just added source. Click in the little triangle in front of the new source, and a list will fold out with all the packages you can choose from . . . . FUN, MAGIC, BLISS !

Here they are: ( Don't click on the links but paste them in a root-console ) YOU HAVE TO BE ON LINE !  

Contributions:  
urpmi.addmedia contrib ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/os/Linux/distr/Mandrake/Mandrake/9.2/contrib/i586 with ../../i586/Mandrake/base/hdlist2.cz
  
( sometimes gives an error about a not up to date list after an install, but still does the install fine )

To remove:
urpmi.removemedia contrib_ftp.nluug.nl_i586_9.2


Club Contributions: ( not the same as contrib, free for all )  
urpmi.addmedia club.contrib_ftp.join.uni-muenster.de_i586_9.2 ftp://ftp.join.uni-muenster.de/pub/linux/distributions/mandrake-devel/contrib/ppc/../../unsupported/MandrakeClub/9.2/i586/ with hdlist.cz


To remove:
urpmi.removemedia club.contrib_ftp.join.uni-muenster.de_i586_9.2
  

PLF  Link
urpmi.addmedia plf http://mandrakeusers.com/PLF/mandrake/9.2 with hdlist.cz
  

Cheatcode:
wget http://plf.zarb.org/plf.asc; rpm --import plf.asc; rm -f plf.asc

To remove:  
urpmi.removemedia plf_ftp.easynet.fr_i586_9.2


Thacs RPM's: Link
urpmi.addmedia thacs.rpms http://rpm.nyvalls.se/9.2/RPMS with hdlist.cz

El Buho RPM's Link
urpmi.addmedia BUHO http://www.linuxlots.com/~buho/rpms/ with hdlist.cz

Eshlarc Link
urpmi.addmedia eslrahc http://www.eslrahc.com/9.2/ with hdlist.cz

Chip Cuccio's Link
urpmi.addmedia NORLUG-9.2 http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/mirrors/norlug/mandrake-9.2/RPMS/ with hdlist.cz

Cheatcode
lynx -source http://norlug.org/~chipster/public_key.tgz | gunzip -c > norlug_rpms.asc; rpm --import [size=4] norlug_rpms.asc; rm -f norlug_rpms.asc
[/size]

Additional pages with links to more sources:
Easy URPMI
TheBix

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
Only Club Members:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Commercial Apps:
urpmi.addmedia club.comm_i586_9.2 http://NICKNAME:PASSWORD@www.mandrakeclub.com/downloads2/comm/9.2/ with ./hdlist.cz
  

To remove:
urpmi.removemedia club.comm_i586_9.2


Test RPM's: ( at your own risk )
urpmi.addmedia Club_test http://NICKNAME:PASSWORD@www.mandrakeclub.com/downloads2/test/9.2 with ./hdlist.cz
  

To remove
urpmi.removemedia Club_test_i586_9.2
  

For the last two you have to replace "NICKNAME" and "PASSWORD" . . .  

Don't forget you have to update your sources on a regular basis with:  
# urpmi.update -a

Because frequently new packages are added and updated.

B) Bruno

#227 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 04 December 2003 - 05:36 PM

CHECK CD SCRIPT:

Imagine, you did the checksum on the ISO and you burned the CD, still you want to double check the integrity of the files on the CD . . . .

Here is a little script that will do the checksum on your CDs.  You do need the original checksum to compare with the outcome of this script.
$ vi checkcd

< i > ( to put vi in insertmode )

and paste the following lines:

Quote

#!/bin/sh
#checkcd

device=$1

blocksize=`isoinfo -d -i $device | grep "^Logical block size is:" | cut -d " " -f 5`
if test "$blocksize" = ""; then
      echo catdevice FATAL ERROR: Blank blocksize >&2
      exit
fi

blockcount=`isoinfo -d -i $device | grep "^Volume size is:" | cut -d " " -f 4`
if test "$blockcount" = ""; then
      echo catdevice FATAL ERROR: Blank blockcount >&2
      exit
fi

command="dd if=$device bs=$blocksize count=$blockcount conv=notrunc,noerror"
echo "$command" >&2
$command

< Esc > ( put vi in command mode )
< ZZ > ( save the file )

$ su
< password >
# chmod 755 checkcd

# ./checkcd /dev/cdrom | md5sum

This should give you the md5sum after a minute.  Check it with the original and then you're sure the CD is 100% perfect.

B) Bruno

NOTE: For more information on CDWriting, see the following comprehensive article by Steve Litt here which includes other sniplets of code like the one above and some very interesting concepts: Coasterless CD burning by Steve Litt

#228 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 09 December 2003 - 04:55 PM

NOTE: This section should have been placed earlier, it is actually the intro to the Tips about Bash History, Bash Script and many other Tips on the commandline.

BASH

There are several shells available in Linux, the default shell is the Bourne Again SHell ---a pun on the name of Steve Bourne, who was author of the traditional Unix shell, the Bourne shell.
A shell is a program that takes commands from the user and passes them on to the kernel for processing.
Like all the other shells in Linux, the Bash shell is not only a great tool for the command line, but also a scripting language.
Shell scripting allows you to automate tasks that in a normal way would need typing in a lot of commands.
FYI: Some other shells are: the C shell, or Korn shell (the default on IBM's AIX operating system); the ASH shell ( ash is useful for testing scripts to be sh-compliant ), the TCSH shell ( completely compatible version of the Berkeley Unix C shell )  and the new ZSH shell (  ZSH most closely resembles KSH but includes many enhancements ).

As you open a terminal/console you actually open a shell and you are presented with a bash prompt. A Bash prompt typically ends with a $ to show you're logged in as a normal user ( Only in SuSE it ends with > for the user ). A Bash prompt ending with # shows that we are logged in as root ( Same in SuSE this time ).

B)  Bruno

Additional info:
http://www.comptechd...nux_hlbash.html
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/bash2/

#229 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 19 December 2003 - 03:43 PM

THE HOST COMMAND

You want your browser to load the bookmarks you have with more speed ? Replace the www adresses with IP numbers . . .

How ? Simple as can be, type:  
$ host www.distrowatch.com

This will give: 66.111.55.60

Now put your bookmark to search for http://66.111.55.60  

Here's a few you can start with:
Freshmeat: http://66.35.250.165
Slashdot: http://66.35.250.150
The Linux Show http://68.166.255.130
Linux-Sound.org http://199.239.233.68
Newsforge: http://66.35.250.177
Linux Documentation Project: http://152.2.210.81
Yo Linux: http://66.218.88.103
Fast Dutch Linux Mirror ( utwente) : http://130.89.175.1
Another one ( nluug ): ftp://192.87.106.122

NOTE: The server of  Scot's Newsletter Forum does not allow direct lookups by IP  , so for that bookmark you will have to use the good old fashioned way

If your distro does not come with the host command please install the "bind-utils" package.

B) Bruno

#230 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 30 December 2003 - 04:22 PM

GRUB ( The Grub bootloader )

There are people that like Lilo and there are people that like the Grub bootloader. I have written many Tips about Lilo, so here is to balance out the information: "all you always wanted to know about Grub".

To restore Grub to the MBR:
$ su
< password >
# grub-install /dev/hda

To setup Grub or add new entries:
Note:

Quote

Grub uses its own naming structure for drives and partitions, in the form of (hdn,m), where n is the hard drive number, and m the partition number, both starting from zero. This means, for instance, that partition hda1 is (hd0,0) to Grub, and hdb2 is (hd1,1). Grub doesn't consider CD-ROM drives to be hard drives, so if you have a CD on hdb, for example, and a second hard drive on hdc, that second hard drive would still be (hd1).

Also:

Quote

Note that GRUB does _not_ distinguish IDE from SCSI - it simply counts the drive numbers from zero, regardless of their type. Normally, any IDE drive number is less than any SCSI drive number, although that is not true if you change the boot sequence by swapping IDE and SCSI drives in your BIOS.

Setup Grub:
# grub

First, tell Grub where to find the 'stage files' -- you can use Tab to show the alternatives: ( in this example hda4 )
root (hd0,3)

Now tell Grub to install into the MBR of hda:
setup (hd0)


And close with:
quit


Make or adapt the menu.lst: ( And new entries )
# vi /boot/grub/menu.lst


Quote

# Begin /boot/grub/menu.lst

# By default boot the first menu entry.
default 0

# Allow 30 seconds before booting the default.
timeout 30

# Use prettier colors.
color green/black light-green/black

# The first entry is for Linux.
title Linux
root (hd0,3)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/hda4 ro

# If you want, a second entry for RedHat
title RedHat
root (hd0,2)
kernel /boot/kernel-2.4.20 root=/dev/hda3 ro
initrd /boot/initrd-2.4.20

# You wish to include Windows ?
title Windows
rootnoverify (hd0,0)
chainloader +1


Emergency

If things go really wrong and you get only a grub prompt you can still boot:

For Windows:
grub> root noverify (hd0,0)grub> chainloader +1grub> boot


For Linux ( on hda4 like in example above )
grub> root (hd0,3)grub> kernel /boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/hda4 rogrub> boot


Well, this was more or less all I can tell you on Grub.

More info: http://www.gnu.org/software/grub

See also Jasons post "What to do when you get the GRUB prompt" Here


B) Bruno

#231 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 02 January 2004 - 08:00 PM

CONFIGURE X
( How To Get Your X Back )

If you have Mandrake, PCLos, SuSE, Ubuntu, Debian or Slackware . . First read the notes for the automatic x setup tools at the end of this post !

In case of pure disaster you can lose your X, and mess up your X-Config file. This tells you how to fix that.
In the case of a failing X you get thrown back to the prompt in a text console in runlevel 3, just to check that do:
$ root ( not "su" because you're not logged in as user yet )
< password >
# init 3


This because the following actions should absolutely not be done in another run level.  ( In Ubuntu and Debian please boot up in "safe mode" )

We stay logged in as root and first do:
# Xorg -configure


The screen will go black for a few seconds because it will generate an new xorg.conf file, it will put "xorg.conf.new" in root's home directory ( /root ) . . . . so check this with:
# ls /root


If the file is there we can first check if it works:
# Xorg -config /root/xorg.conf.new


You should get a gray ( or blue ) screen with an X-shaped mouse cursor, this means it's working. If so we get back to the prompt with:
< Ctrl+Alt+Backspace >

Now we back up the old file, just to be sure we can compare later if needed:
# cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf-BACKUP


Next we move the new file on its place:
# mv /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf


I hope all went smooth up until now, because then we can:
# reboot


I know "startx" is possible too, but I do like a "fresh" start

NOTES: Automatic X setup tools:

1). In Mandrake and PCLos the command is "XFdrake" ( as root )  . . .

2). In SUSE just type "sax2" as root on the commandline ( "sax2 -a" will do it automatically )

3). In Slack you can try "xorgsetup" ( if that fails then try "xorgconfig" )

4). In Debian and Ubuntu ( as root ) "dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xfree86"

B) Bruno

#232 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 06 January 2004 - 06:43 PM

MANDRAKE 92 INSTALLMUST READ before installing 9.2 Mdk, Warnings, bugreports and install tips  

There are a few important unresolved issues with the new Mandrake 9.2.
We ask you to read the following with great attenttion:

A ). Problems with fried LG CD-ROM Drives and Burners, see this thread. And Mandrake errata:  http://www.mandrakel...n/lgerrata.php3

B ). Lost Menu Entries after updating and/or adding software, read solution in This post

C ). See/read the mandrake errata page: http://www.linux-man.../en/errata.php3  

D ). Tips for a simple install: ( 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 important for everybody ! )

Bruno, on Oct 23 2003, said:

Tips Mandrake 9.2 install ( The simple way ):


1). Go for all the defaults the installer presents you. ( do check if the partitioner leaves enough space for your Windows )

2). Choosing packages: all on the left side the defaults + Gonme and KDE on the right ( If you do not run a server ( you absolutely need the development packages )

3). Overview configuration: . . check if there are no items left un-configured ( if so config them )

4). Install Lilo in MBR

5). Make a boot floppy too ( Problems ? Look here:  Formatting floppy 1722kB and Making boot floppy  )

6). Update after install . . . 100 - 200 MB ( already !Drakx, Harddrale, KDEbase, Gnomelibs Mplayer and many more) Don´t do all the updates at once, take groups of 4 - 6 at a time and give the process time to finish before closing the MCC ! ( Most US and French mirrors are useless, so pick a update mirror from the Netherlands or Germany)

7). After the Install, get more programs in the MCC, the default install, even with all the packages is pretty minimal, there is plenty more on the CD´s you can install with the normal "add software" in the MCC ! ( Don´t forget to run the updates again after installing the new programmes )
  
8). Install anacron !!!! ( See Cron and Anacron )

WARNING: After updating/adding software: do not open the menu for 60 seconds . . it has to be written to cache  ( Related to menu problem mentioned above )


Have FUN !!

E). Additional info about making a boot CD to replace the boot-floppy: Look here

B) Bruno

#233 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 06 January 2004 - 06:47 PM

CHROOT . . . . . . .

See UPDATE because of change to udev below

With the "chroot" command you can log in as root in another distro located on a different partition so you can give commands as root, as if you were actually booted in that other distro.
This is handy for repair jobs, but also for example if your MBR is messed up and you only have a Live CD you can boot from.
In this example we want to restore Mandrake's lilo to the MBR and Mandrake is on hda7. We boot from the Live CD ( or any other distro on the same computer ) and issue the following commands:

First we make sure we are root:
$ su
< password >

Then we mount the Mandrake partition:
# mount /dev/hda7 /mnt/hda7
( this assuming that /mnt/hda7 does exist, if not we have to do "mkdir /mnt/hda7" first )

Also we have to mount /dev/pts and /proc  
# mount -t devpts none /mnt/hda7/dev/pts
# mount -t proc none /mnt/hda7/proc
( NOTE: /dev/pts is only Mandrake, other distro's just use /dev without the pts )

Now we can chroot:
# chroot /mnt/hda7
( NOTE: The prompt will change to show you that you are on a different filesystem )

And give the command to write the Mandrake lilo to MBR:
# /sbin/lilo -b /dev/hda


Log out of the chroot environment:
< Ctrl+D >

And we are "normal" root again.

We unmount the previously mounted partitions:
# umount /mnt/hda7/dev/pts[/size]
[size=4]# umount /mnt/hda7/proc[/size]
[size=4]# umount /mnt/hda7


And reboot to see the MBR working again:
# reboot


Hope you will never need this and always have a boot-floppy or boot-CD ready, but in case even those fail  . . . . . . .)

B) Bruno

UPDATE: Because of the recent switch to "udev" in PCLos and Mandrake there are 2 changes in the above:In Mandrake /devpts is gone, so only proc has to be mounted

In PCLos the /dev line changed to "mount -t none /dev /dev/hda7/dev -o bind"

#234 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 08 January 2004 - 07:26 PM

NVIDIA DRIVERS

NOTE: Installing the nVidia drivers is no easy task for novices. At least you will need to be comfortable with the commandline and the Vi-editor ( see Vi revisited because all is done in text mode and you have no GUI while doing this.  )

Quote

1) Download the drivers ( http://www.nvidia.co...ers/drivers.asp )

What it does not say here in these instructions is that you have to be in runlevel 3 to install the drivers . . . . . :
The safest way to do this is to change your /etc/inittab file:
$ su
< password >
# kedit /etc/inittab

Change the line: "id:5:initdefault:" in "id:3:initdefault:" and save the file
# reboot

Quote

2) Type "root" to get root access, cd to the directory where you downloaded the file and type the following:# sh NVIDIA-Linux-x86-1.0-5328-pkg1.run ( adapt package number to the one you downloaded )

3) You'll be greeted with the license which asks you to accept or deny it.

4) If you had previous GLX drivers and kernel modules installed, such as the RPMs, you will be prompted to remove them.

5) Next, the utility will check for and return with either a module if your kernel is supported or a statement that you will need to build a module if your kernel is not supported.

6) When you select OK, the utility will either download and install the pre-compiled module or download and compile a module then proceed to install the rest of the driver package.You should receive a message proclaiming the installation was a success. Proceed to the section below before restarting X or rebooting.

7) Open your /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 file with the Vi text editor ( one of the few that works in text mode):

# vi /etc/X11/XF86Config-4

NOTE: when using Xorg the file is /etc/X11/xorg.conf

< i > ( put vi in insert mode )

Quote

Under section "Module" there should be a:
Load "glx"

If you have these lines, nVidia advises you to remove them:

Load "dri"Load "GLcore"

Now scroll down to the 'Graphics device section' ( or sometimes just named 'Device' ). Instead of the default XFree driver:Driver "nv"Change to:
Driver "nvidia"

Make the above changes, save the file:
< Esc >
< ZZ >

And start the X server with:
# startx
( to test if it works )

NOTE 1:
In the  "module" section it is sometimes better to replace
Load "glx"

With:
 Load "/usr/X11R6/lib/modules/extensions/libglx.so"

Anyway that is the way I always set it up in Mandrake.

NOTE 2:
If all works well you can change the /etc/inittab file back to "id:5:initdefault:" and reboot.

NOTE 3: ( Alternative for the "id:3:initdefault:" part )
If you know what you're doing you can also exit X and go to text mode with:
Press "Ctrl+Alt+F2", then log-in as "root" and type "init 3", then again you have to login as root.

When ready type "init 5" to get back to runlevel 5.

Additional info:
nVidia README( You might want to print this out because once you are in text mode it will be hard to browse to the site and read it. Contains an extensive FAQ. )

B) Bruno

#235 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 16 January 2004 - 07:09 PM

ATOMIC CLOCK

Some people are obsessed with time, they assure you that every second counts. . . . I have strong doubts about that, and even would like to defend the theory that time is mankind's worst invention . . . . . but, if you absolutely want to update your clock to the correct atomic clock time:
$ su
< password >
# rdate -s clock-1.cs.cmu.edu && hwclock --systohc

The first part updates your system time, the second part ( after the && ) updates the BIOS clock, so if you only want your system time updated leave the "&& hwclock --systohc" off.

For the real time fanatics we can even automate the process . . . ( well isn't that what computers are for ?  )

You can add the line above at the end of /etc/rc.d/rc.local to make it update every time you boot. Of course you need a broadband connection that is started during boot for it to be effective.

B) Bruno

NOTE: You will need to have "rdate" installed ( check your package manager  )

PS: If you get an odd time, right-click the clock, select "Adjust Time and Date" and check if the timezone is set correctly

Edited by securitybreach, 31 March 2013 - 11:41 PM.
Last Edited by Securitybreach 2013-03-31


#236 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 20 January 2004 - 07:36 PM

CDRECORD( NOTE: for the new 2.6 kernel, see the remark in the PS at the end !! ) CDrecord is the default commandline cd burning tool in Linux . . . simple and effective ;)For burning ISO's it's pretty straightforward:
 cdrecord dev=0,0,0 distro.iso
But if you want to burn files and directories to CD it requires a bit more: first we will have to use the "mkisofs" command to make an iso of the files.If you want to use the CD in linux, the following arguments are recommended:
mkisofs -R -r -v -o filename.iso file1 file2 file2 dir1 dir2
-R is for Rock Ridge extensions-r is to preserve the UID/GID info-v is more output so you can see what is going on-o is to set the name of the outputfile ( filename.iso )After making the ISO you can check the content of the ISO with:
isoinfo -f -R -i filename.iso
Now we can burn the ISO to CD, first we have to know the "dev=" numbers:
cdrecord --scanbus
( NOT with 2.6 kernel !! )The output will end like this:
scsibus0:	0,0,0   0) 'LITE-ON ' 'LTR-16102C   ' 'US52' Removable CD-ROM	0,1,0   1) *	0,2,0   2) *	0,3,0   3) *	0,4,0   4) *	0,5,0   5) *	0,6,0   6) *	0,7,0   7) *
And in this case it will show you  the numbers are 0,0,0Now we can burn:
cdrecord -v dev=0,0,0 filename.iso
Or we can give a few extra arguments:
cdrecord -v -multi -eject speed=16 dev=0,0,0 filename.iso
This will allow a multisession disk that will be ejected after burning at speed x16Sure, I know, this all seems complicated, and K3b ( the GUI front-end for cdrecord ) looks simpler to use . . . but once you have learned to do it this way you will see that the commandline is better and puts all your computer power in the burning and not in the fancy GUI ;)More about CD and DVD commandline burning, read Here;) BrunoPS: NOTE: For the new 2.6 kernel things have changed for CDrecord . . no more "--scanbus" but now we do "dmesg | grep CD" to determine the device:In Mandrake 10, and probably soon in other distro's with the 2.6 kernel, first do
# dmesg | grep CD
to see what /dev/hd?? your burner is located . . and then:
# cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc filename.iso
That is all . . . .See also: http://forums.scotsn...h...=503&st=255 for the reason why this change is.

#237 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 27 January 2004 - 04:34 PM

SLACKWARE TIPS ( 2 )Making poweroff and reboot buttonsIn Slackware when we want to power-off we need to give the command "shutdown -h now" as root in a terminal.  ( Because there is no entry for shutdown in the menu B)  )We can make a power-off button, but it needs some work, here is how to do that:We need to edit the sudoers file, as root, with vi ( study the Vi editor before you do this, see notes below ! ). . There is a special command to open the sudoers file in vi though . .  NOT "vi sudoes", but:
# visudo
  This will open the file in vi . . so press "i" to put vi in insert mode an paste the next line at the end of the file: ( you need to do this for every user you will allow to reboot and halt )  
bruno ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown -h now, /sbin/reboot
  Then save and close the file:  <Esc> <ZZ>  We now gave "bruno" sudo permission to give the commands "sudo /sbin/reboot" and "sudo /sbin/halt" and we can meke special buttons on the tastbar:  Rightclick on the taskbar and choose "Add" --> "Special Button" --> "Non-KDE application" . . you will get a little GUI where you can put in the top box ( Executable ):
sudo /sbin/reboot
. . . and press on the icon to change the icon to the one you like B) . . then press OK and you are ready . . . Do the same for
sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now
And every user you did add in the sudoers file will be able to press the buttons and reboot or halt the system.That should do the trick.  Have FUN   B) BrunoNOTE: More about editing with Vi: Vi ( Revisited ) Tip

#238 OFFLINE   Bruno

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Posted 30 January 2004 - 05:09 PM

GREAT LINUX LINKS From Windows to Linux: The bottom Line Linux Tips For Windows People Win to Linux Intro to Linux Windows / Linux equivalents: The table of equivalents ALL important Linux Links: YoLinuxLoads of Linux LinksLinuxLinks.comEit.in Research and Linux LinksArcturus Helpful Linux LinksLinux Command Line Cheat Sheets Major Distros DistroWatch PCLos Mandriva Red Hat Fedora Ubuntu Knoppix Debian SUSE Gentoo Slackware D*** Small Linux Mepis VectorLinux Lindows  Info on Major distros DistroWatch Major Distros LinuxIso  Cheap CDs ( for those on dial-up )  CheapBytes OS Heaven.Net CheepLinux (UK) Lankum.com (AUS) Munnikes (NL) LinuxCD (FR)LinuxCDs.com.ar (AR)Pre-installed Linux computers: Seascape.usLinux.v2w.orgIbexpc.comSystem76.comMagiansystems.comLinuxcomputersystems.comLinuxcertified.comPenguincomputing.comEmperorlinux.comDamnsmalllinux  ( Mini ITX )Axiomtech.co.uk  ( UK )Dnuk.com  ( UK )Xtops.de ( Germany )MandrivaStore( France )Linux-service.be  ( Belgium )Lxer.com ( A large list of addresses )Best mirrors:  Ibiblio NLuug UTwenteBittorrent Downloads:  The Linux Mirror ProjectLinux ISO torrentHardware Databases: Linux Printing.org Linux Compatible Tuxedo.orgLinModems Winmodems are not modems Linux Hardware.org Pa-Risc LinuxMandriva HW Database Red Hat HW Database SUSE HW DatabaseUbuntu Hardware SupportPCLos Hardware DatabaseLinux INcompatibility ListLinux Laptop: Linux-Laptop.nete-laptop.com Battery Powered Mini-HOW TOTuxMobil Installation GuidesLinux Search: Google-Linux Linux Sound: Linux-Sound  Linux Printing: Linux-Printing Printing with CUPSLinux supported HP printers Linux Games: Linux-Games  The Linux Counter: The Linux Counter  Podcasts Linux LogLinuxQuestions.org PodcastThe Linux LinkLug RadioPodcast Alley ( additional links )Linux News: Linux Pipeline Linux.com NewsforgeSlashdot Linux Today Tux.org Just Linux Freshmeat (software) Think Geek OS newsLWN.net Kuro5hinPCBurnBack issues Penguin ShellTuxMagazineLinuxgazette.net ( Online Linux Magazine )Software: Free Software FoundationGNU projectRPM Find.net ( Search engine RPMs )RPM pbone.net (  Search engine RPMs )Freshmeat SourceForgeBerlios SourcewellIceWalkersLinuxSoft.czOpenOffice.org Apache Linux Games Kernel.org Samba Penguin Liberation Front Thac's RPMsXimian Linux Packages ( Search engine Slackware ) Thread Mandrake PackagesThread Slack Packages Thread SUSE PackagesThread Fedora SourcesThread Debian sourcesUltimate Boot CD: The Ultimate Boot CD ( Full of very nice tools )Linux Books: RuteO'ReillyO'Reilly - commandsFree Linux eBooks (.pdf) The Linux Documentation Project ( tldp ): The Linux Documentation ProjectHowTo's: nVidia on 2.6 kernelJet Blackz  Xscreensavers manuals  The Gimp TutorialsGimp Savvy  Gimp Tutorials  Gimp Tutorials Pointer Page  GimpGuru.org  The RRU Gimp Tutorial Tigert Gimp Tutorials My First Mutt  Bash prompt Howto  Knoppix HD install Howto Super Man Pages IBM main Linux page IBM tutorials Linux Headquarters SUSE Linux networking commands YoLinux Tutorials Firewall How To LinuxDoc Firewall How To Slackware 9.1 installAll kinds of How-To's from Mines.eduLinuxnewbieguide.orgSecurity: PC Flank ShieldsUp Top 20 Threats Rootkitinfo  Download Chkrootkit Chkrootkit software Security info Symantec F-Prot AV Software for Linux Mandrake info: MandrivaLinuxMandrivaStore  MandrivaExpert MandrivaClub MandrivaSecure Installing from harddrive Penguin Liberation Front lair Easy URPMI Thac's RPMS for MDK9.2 Mandrake Linux tips for free Mandriva Hardware Database  SuSE info: SUSE Products SUSE Support SUSE Downloads SUSE Updates SUSE Games IBM and SuSE SUSE Hardware Database  Debian info: Debian General reference Debianhelp.co.ukApt-get Backports Jigdo Debian Doc Slackware info: Slackware.orgUserlocal.comAudioSlack.orgSlackPackages.netDroplineGnomeThe U.R. Slackware Book ProjectFedora Core info: User DocumentationThe Unofficial Fedora FAQ - core 1 - 5SELinux FAQsRH Hardware DatabaseAll Great Fedora LinksUbuntu info: Community DocumentationCommon QuestionsRoot/SudoUbuntu Hardware SupportAll Great Ubuntu Links Windowmanagers: X Windowmanagers KDE.org KDE-Look.org Dot KDE.org Gnome  Tux images: Jane's Penguin Page The LWN Penguin Gallery The World Famous Tux Gallery A Complete History of Tux - so Far Linux Penguins on the web  Icons: Art Gnome.org Gentoo Icons DigitalGarage Tux 'n Tosh KDE-Look.org  Wallpapers: CT wallpapersLinuxArt.com LinuxSoft.czSoftscape Digital Blasphemy DeviantArt Deskmod ArtUproar Customize.org This page of links was made with the cooperation of many forum members in this thread. If you have some links to add please post your links in that thread ;)Thanks to all who posted their links.:D Bruno

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Posted 04 February 2004 - 06:14 PM

CUPSCUPS (Common UNIX Printing System) can be used instead of the default LPR printing system. And there is a good chance if your printer does not work with LPR it will with CUPS.In a post from Striker we found a good way to set it up:

Striker, on forum, said:

If you use CUPS,you must make sure the lpd service is stopped and the cups service is started:If I remember well, I had to be root for this :/sbin/service lpd stop/sbin/service cups startAlso if there's a services configuration tool in Slack, use it to configure your system to start the cups service automatically (and disable the lpd service if it is running).After the cups daemon is started, open a web browser and connect to the cups server:http://localhost:631 Then you have to add the printer in the Cups Configuration Interface.When you did get that far, it's probably working, so we go on: to add a printer, click Manage Printers and then the Add Printer button.It'll ask for username and a password. I did have to use root as the username and my rootpassword .
NOTE: If you see your printer in the cups drivers list, but not the exact version number of the printer, you could try a few other versions at random, and most of the time you will be able to find a version number that will use the same drivers. This is not ideal and the quality may not be 100% but at least you will be able to print. ;)Now, once you have set up CUPS you will notice it will print in KDE programs, but not in OpenOffice . . . Here is a trick you can try, type in a console:
/usr/lib/openoffice/program/spadmin
( Check the path because this is the one for Mandrake 9.2 . . . . "/openoffice/program/spadmin" is the fixed part you can "locate" )You will get a dialog where the generic printer is preselected . . . . click on properties . . . you will see that the command is "lpr" . . . . . replace that with "kprinter -stdin" . . . . and save.Why ? Koffice and KDE are just configured to use CUPS and not "lpr" . .  :)NOTE: You might have to clear the printer lpr queue first, delete the old jobs that are not finished and still blocking the process ( even after a reboot ):
$ lprm -
( "lprm" will remove the active job, "lprm -" will remove all jobs  )All info on CUPS and printing: CUPS Quick Start at Linuxprinting.orgB) Bruno

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Posted 10 February 2004 - 06:24 PM

APROPOSBecause Linux knows so many commands you can impossibly remember them all, that is why there are a few tricks available to help you.We already know from previous tips that if you type the first few characters of a command and press the <tab> key, it will autocomplete the command or give a list of options.Also we had the whatis command a few tips ago this showed a line of text explaining what a command was for.Here is another clever command: "apropos". Imagine you know only a part of the name or description of a command, let's take an example like "alsa"
$ apropos alsa
Returns to the screen:
aconnect	   (1) - ALSA sequencer connection manageralsaconf	   (8) - configuration tool for the Advanced Linux Sound Architecturealsactl	   (1) - advanced controls for ALSA soundcard driveralsamixer	  (1) - soundcard mixer for ALSA soundcard driver, with ncurses interfacealsaplayer	  (1) - plays various sound filesamixer		(1) - command-line mixer for ALSA soundcard driveraplay		(1) - command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundcard driveraplay [arecord]   (1) - command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundcard driverarecord	   (1) - command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundcard driverarecord [aplay]   (1) - command-line sound recorder and player for ALSA soundcard driveraseqnet	   (1) - ALSA sequencer connectors over network
Well, that is pretty cool isn't it ?? . . . . . . . cool ?:
$ apropos coolSmalledit-3.17.7 [smalledit] (1) - Stripped down version of Cooledit - a full-featured text editor for the X Window Systemcooledit	   (1) - 3.17.7 - Full featured text editor for the X Window System, Version 11coolicon	   (1) - 3.17.7 - Icon manager with graphical icon configuration and drag and drop support. Written under the Coolwidget librarycoolman	   (1) - 3.17.7 - Man page reader for the X Window System based on the Coolwidget library
Have fun exploring ! :DB) Bruno

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Posted 18 February 2004 - 06:25 PM

ULTIMATE BOOT CDThe absolute tool Looking for the Active Killdisk version for Linux I came upon this tool . . . does not only have the tool I was looking for but a whole bundle more:  

Quote

Hard Disk Installation MaxBlast 3 (Maxtor) DiscWizard 2003 (Seagate)Hard Disk Diagnosis Drive Fitness Test (IBM/Hitachi) PowerMax (Maxtor/Quantum) DLG Diagnostic (Western Digital) SeaTools Desktop (Seagate) Diagnostic Tool (Fujitsu) SHDIAG (Samsung) HUTIL (Samsung) Data Lifeguard (Western Digital) Hard Disk Device Management IBM/Hitachi Feature Tool AMSET (Maxtor) UATA100 (Seagate) Ultra ATA Manager (Western Digital) SMARTUDM ATA Password Tool Hard Disk Wiping AutoClave Active@ KillDisk Free Edition Darik's Boot and Nuke Hard Disk Cloning HDClone (Free Edition) g4u  Partition Tools Ranish Partition Manager XFDISK (Extended FDISK) SPFDISK (Special FDISK) TestDisk Partition Resizer SavePart Free FDISK MBRtool MBRWork Boot Managers Smart BootManager Gujin  File Managers DOS NavigatorFile Maven  NTFS Tools Offline NT Password & Registry EditorActive NTFS Reader for DOS EditBINI   Memory Diagnosis Memtest86 Memtest86+Windows Memory Diagnostic DocMem RAM Diagnostic  DOS Boot Disks Bart's Network Boot Disk Bart's CDROM Boot Disk FreeDOS Boot Disk Linux-based Rescue Disks Tom's Boot Disk Recovery Is Possible (RIP) BasicLinux Trinux  System Information AIDA16 NSSI PC-Config PCI Benchmarks System Speed Test 32  Antivirus Tools F-Prot Antivirus for DOS (Personal use only)McAfee Antivirus Scanner  BIOS Tools CMOS Password Recovery  Network Tools Freesco
Homepage: http://www.ultimatebootcd.com/IMPORTANT: Make sure you get the "normal" version of the UltimateBootCD and not the WindowsUBCD ( with Bart's PE ). Downloading from one of the sites listed on http://www.ultimatebootcd.com/ ( in ISO format ) will asure you that you have the correct version. :o Bruno

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Posted 25 February 2004 - 08:08 PM

SWARET ( For Slackware )Swaret is magical and an easy script designed to help keep your Slackware System up-to-date.It downloads, upgrades and installs packages, patches, sources and much more! Swaret includes dependency support, as well as it tracks and fixes missing libraries.There is no better tool to keep your Slackware up to date and sane.Get the latest Swaret:  http://swaret.source...e.net/index.php OR The 1.6.2-noarch-1.tgz is here By mistake the file on the mirror is named swaret-1.6.2-noarch-1.tgz.tar so we have to rename the file in order to remove the last part ( .tar ):
# mv swaret-1.6.2-noarch-1.tgz.tar swaret-1.6.2-noarch-1.tgz
Next you can install it:
# installpkg swaret-1.6.1-noarch-3.tgz
( Adapt version number with the one you downloaded ) Configure it:
# cp /etc/swaret.conf.new /etc/swaret.conf
  Edit the /etc/swaret.conf file, first set the version:

swaret.conf, on file, said:

# NOTE: If you want to use Slackware Linux Current,# set VERSION to 'current' (VERSION=current).#VERSION=??.? <---------------------------------------------- Put the version you use here !
NOTE: Switching to current is experimental and is not advised for new users.( Attention dial-up users, upgrading to “current” will download more then 800 MB packages. So my advice is keep the version you downloaded/installed. )And next: "EXCLUDE=alsa"

swaret.conf, on file, said:

# Basic Exclude  #  EXCLUDE=kernel  EXCLUDE=lilo swaret  EXCLUDE=MANIFEST.bz2$  EXCLUDE=-*dl$ -*PACKAGER$ -*MYBUILD$  EXCLUDE=alsa    <----------------------------------------------- add this one !!
And for resolving dependencies,  replace these lines:

Quote

DEP_ROOT=http://www.swaret.org/swaretDEP_ROOT=ftp://ftp.swaret.org/swaret
With:

Quote

DEP_ROOT=http://swaret.sourceforge.net/libraries-$VERSION
Finally, here is how to update/upgrade:
# swaret --update # swaret --upgrade -a
( -a is for automatic . . . dial-up users prefer not to use this )A few basic commands:swaret --update ( updates list of packages ) swaret --list ( shows packages list ) swaret --upgrade -a ( upgrades system -a automatically ) swaret --remove xxxxx ( removes packages xxxxx ) swaret --install xxxxx ( installs package xxxxx )  :thumbsup: BrunoNOTE for dial-up up users: Dial-up users have to change another line in the /etc/swaret.conf as well: Change NIC=eth0 to NIC=ppp0

swaret.conf, on file, said:

# Network Settings # # Network Interface # Use this if you have a Network Interface. #  NIC=ppp0 <--------------------------------------------------------------------- Here## Local Interface # Use this if you do not have a Network Interface. #
PS: The Swaret FAQ and the Swaret forum are here:FAQ: http://swaret.source...ex.php?name=FAQForum: http://swaret.source...a...&file=indexOld Swaret HowTo: Old HowToOld Swaret FAQ: Old FAQOld Swaret Man: Old Man Pages

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Posted 03 March 2004 - 04:16 PM

FILE SYSTEM COMMANDS:Here is a list of all the filesystem management tools. It is only an overview.  If you want to know more about a specific command and the parameters that can be used with it, see the man pages or help files of the commands.( Example: "man badblocks" or "badblocks --help" )badblocks . . . . . . Searches a device for bad blocks cfdisk. . . . . . . . . . Creates or deletes partitions from the partition tabledosfsck . . . . . . . . Checks msdos filesystems dumpe2fs. . . . . . . Lists superblock information for the specified device e2fsck . . . . . . . . . Check and/or repair Linux filesystems Ext2/3fdformat. . . . . . . . Performs s lowlevel format on a floppy fdisk. . . . . . . . . . . Adds or removes partitions. Can also be used to view partition table information. fsck. . . . . . . . . . . Check and/or repair Linux filesystems hdparm . . . . . . . . Reads or sets hard disk parameters mkdosfs. . . . . . . . Creates an msdos filesystem mke2fs. . . . . . . . . Creates a native Linux filesystem mkfs. . . . . . . . . . . Also creates native Linux filesystems mkswap. . . . . . . . Creates a Linux swap partition mount . . . . . . . . . Mounts a filesystem stat . . . . . . . . . . . Prints inode information swapoff . . . . . . . . Releases a swap partition swapon . . . . . . . . Activates a swap partition tune2fs . . . . . . . . Adjusts ext2 filesystem parameters umount . . . . . . . . Unmounts a filesystemWith all the multibooters on the forum, all dividing their harddisks to a high amount of small partitions, a little tip on file system commands was not a luxury. o:)( Apparently on an IDE drive, 64 logical partitions is the max on an extended one . . . so: Have fun penguins and penguinettes ! o:) ):w00t: Bruno

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Posted 11 March 2004 - 05:56 AM

FILESYSTEMCHECK 2 ( fsck )Here is one command of the previous Tip I would like to elaborate: fsckIf you have a corrupt file system ( Ext2/3 ) and you have to do a manual check and repair on it in "single user mode", here are 4 ways how to do it:1). If you are booting from Mandrake's Lilo the story is simple: choose option "failsafe" from the menu, this will boot you automatically, without any hassle, in "single user mode" ( you get an odd looking prompt like "sh-2.05b#" ) and you can do:
# fsck /dev/hdb1
( replace hdb1 with the partition you want to run the check on )2). Other graphical Lilos allow you to do Ctrl+X to get a prompt where you type:
linux single
it will than also boot in "single user mode"3). Another option is to flip in any Linux CD ( Live or install ) and at the prompt type
linux single
( For knoppix it is "knoppix single" )4). Now, in case you did already boot, but the boot failed half way before getting to X, and you are thrown back at the text screen with a prompt. Here is how to do it if you are in runlevel 3:Put it in "single user mode", ( back to runlevel 1 ):
# init 1
Then remount / in read only mode:
# mount -o remount,ro /# fsck /dev/hdb1
( replace hdb1 with the partition you want to run the check on ) Most of the times the -a, -A and -P options are not recommended, see "man fsck"Then remount / in readwrite mode:
# mount -o remount,rw /
Last step, back to where you came from:
# init 3
The chances are that your file system will be fixed, but there is no guarantee.The chance that you will have to do this are much slimmer on an Ext3 file system then on Ext2. So there is one more reason you always choose an Ext3 format :huh::'( BrunoPS: Here is how to do it with Grub

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Posted 17 March 2004 - 03:27 PM

FDISK  ( Partition table manipulator for Linux )Here is another command from the list "File System Commands". With fdisk we can get info on partitions and make new ones or delete them.I took the info from a post made by Owyn.Info about partitions:
# fdisk -l /dev/hda
Deleting partitions:
$ su# fdisk /dev/hda
1)List the partitions and make sure you are on hdaPress "p"2)Delete all the existing partitions on hda starting with partition 4 and working back to partition 1Press "d"Enter partition number when requested.3)List the partitions again to make sure the problem is fixed.Press "p"4)Write table to disk and exitPress "w"And then run "fdisk -l /dev/hda" again to see the results.Here is a full list of the commands you can use in fdisk:
Command action  a toggle a bootable flag  b edit bsd disklabel  c toggle the dos compatibility flag  d delete a partition  l list known partition types  m print this menu  n add a new partition  o create a new empty DOS partition table  p print the partition table  q quit without saving changes  s create a new empty Sun disklabel  t change a partition's system id  u change display/entry units  v verify the partition table  w write table to disk and exit  x extra functionality (experts only)
Erase the complete harddrive:
$ su# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda bs=1024 count=10
CAUTION: MAKE SURE YOU ARE WORKING ON THE CORRECT HD !!!!More on fdisk: http://www.justlinux...sing_fdisk.html:thumbsup: Bruno

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Posted 18 March 2004 - 03:17 PM

APT-GET & SWARET ON DIAL-UPApt-Get:These were the questions: Can these downloads be broken up into smaller chunks and downloaded in groups?What can one do to avoid a total reinstall, etc. in the event of a crash? That would be a tremendous task for someone on dialup?

Jodef, on forum, said:

Pclos synaptic saves the packages to /var/cache/apt/archives when you choose to execute in synaptic there is a small checkbox at the bottom check download package files only  this d/ls package but doesn't automatically install them. If this option is not checked once the install is performed the package is deleted from that directory. You can then copy the packages from that directory and save them wherever you choose.To reinstall the packages you can just copy the packages to /var/cache/apt/archives and run synaptic just as you normally would but because the files are available locally in the designated directory it will not need to redownload the files but it will install them. At least in theory I have tested this with one or two packages but not with a whole upgrade but I think it should work the same.
A few handy commands if you use apt-get on the commandline:"apt-get -d kde" would only download the KDE packages and not yet install them so you can burn them to CD first "apt-get check" verifies that there are no broken dependencies . . ."apt-get upgrade" will only get the regular updates . . ( you get to say Y or N )"apt-get dist-upgrade" will totally upgrade your distro to the latest version"apt-get --help" for more info on apt-getSwaret:For Swaret the packages get stored in /var/swaret/sources The command "swaret --get KDE" will only download the packages and save them to /var/swaret/sources. Interrupted downloads will be checked and downloaded again, swaret performs a checksum on the packages. So if you burn the packages in /var/swaret/sources to CD you can always recover them."swaret --get kde" will only download the kde pakages"swaret --dep" will check dependencies"swaret --resume" will resume broken downloads See also the dial-up remarks in the  Swaret TipB) BrunoOriginal thread: http://forums.scotsn...h...f=14&t=6057

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Posted 25 March 2004 - 04:02 PM

PCLOS TWEAKS ( Preview 5 and 7 )Here is a quick few tips for fixing a couple of things after the HD install, and further down for after upgrading:  After HD install 1). The fancy icons in Open Office will be gone if you create a user account, do:
# cp -r /root/.openoffice/user/config/soffice.cfg  /home/bruno/.openoffice/user/config
( Replace "bruno" :'( )  2). The nice mouse pointerwill be gone after the creating of a user account, do:
# cp -r /root/.icons/ /home/bruno/
   After upgrade 1). The KDE startup sound will be changed to the default KDE tune . . . to get Texstars tune back ( what is the name of that track ? ) do boot from the CD and:
# cp /initrd/loopfs/usr/share/sounds/KDE_Startup.wav  /mnt/hda6/usr/share/sounds/TEX_Startup.wav
( Change the hda6 to the partition the PCLos HD install is on. Also this changes the name of the .wav to TEX_Startup.wav because KDE_Startup.wav already exists, so when you go in the "notify" section of KDE Control Center, that is the file to look for. )  2). The "/etc/apt/sources.list" will be replaced and set the default to the ibiblio mirrors . . . change it back to "nluug" for quick downloads.  3). Upgrading to Mozilla 1.6 will make that the plugins in the Konqueror browser not work anymore because it points to the Mozilla 1.5 directory. Go to preferences of konqueror and in the plugins section add:
/usr/lib/mozilla-1.6/plugins/
  4). After the upgrade the entries in the KDE Control Center will be empty . . . . do this:

Texstar, on PCLos forum, said:

1. update to the latest menudrake and menu rpms from apt-get2. delete everything in the /etc/menu directory3. delete the applnk-mdk and applnk-mdk-simplified directory in .kde/share4. delete the .menu directory in home5. update-menus -v when it stops press return to get to the konsole prompt6. run menudrake and save7. check your kcontrol to make sure everything is still there.Now you should be able to edit your menus as needed and not lose kcontrol settings.
5). There is a very cool cursor theme chooser program for PCLos and Mandrake 9.2, including a bundle of different cursor themes. You can get the program here:  ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/os/Linux/distr/Man...1mdk.noarch.rpmOnce downloaded install it ( as root )  with:
# rpm -ihv cursor_themes-0.0.4-1mdk.noarch.rpm
Then run the program as normal user with:
$ choose_cursor
and you will get a small GUI window where you can choose from 45 different themes B) Other language in PCLosFor KDE you need these packages: ( Example is Dutch=nl ) locales-nl-2.3.2-5mdk.i586.rpm ( From Mandrake 9.2 CD ) kde-i18n-nl-3.2.0-2mdk.noarch.rpm ( From Mandrake 10.0 CD, because it is KDE 3.2 )  For OpenOffice: myspell-nl_NL-1.0.2-0.20030824.1mdk.i586.rpm ( From Mandrake 9.2 CD ) myspell-hyph-nl-1.0.2-0.20030824.1mdk.i586.rpm ( From Mandrake 9.2 CD ) OpenOffice.org-l10n-nl-1.1-2.92mdk.i586.rpm ( From Mandrake 9.2 CD )PS: You can download them from ftp.nluug too ;)For 9.2: ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/os/Linux/distr/Man...6/Mandrake/RPMSFor 10.0: ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/os/Linux/distr/Man.../Mandrake/RPMS/ Have FUN with PCLos ! B) Bruno

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Posted 31 March 2004 - 04:07 PM

CPU INFO ( and other information on your system )We can get a lot of info from the /proc directory ( The /proc is a direct reflection of the system kept in memory )An example of  the  info we can get from /proc is "CPU info":
$ cat /proc/cpuinfoprocessor       : 0vendor_id       : AuthenticAMDcpu family      : 6model           : 6model name      : AMD Athlon(tm) Processorstepping        : 2cpu MHz         : 1595.353cache size      : 256 KBfdiv_bug        : nohlt_bug         : nof00f_bug        : nocoma_bug        : nofpu             : yesfpu_exception   : yescpuid level     : 1wp              : yesflags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 mmx fxsr sse syscall mp mmxext 3dnowext 3dnowbogomips        : 2182.34
That is pretty good info isn't it ? . . But that is not all, there is a lot of other real-time information on your system in /proc, try:
$ cat /proc/devices ( System block and character devices )$ ls /proc/driver ( Shows The drivers you can "cat", example: "cat /proc/driver/rtc" )$ cat /proc/filesystems ( Lists supported filesystems )# cat /proc/kmsg ( As root !  kernel messages . . close with Ctrl+C )$ cat /proc/modules ( A list of loaded drivers )$ ls /proc/net ( A directory with networking subdirectories )$ cat /proc/partitions ( All partitions your kernel recognizes )$ cat /proc/pci ( Devices in the pci slots )$ ls /proc/sys ( Directory with system information you can "cat" )$ cat /proc/version ( Kernel version, the gcc it was commpiled with, etc . . . )
So you see there is a wealth of info you can retrieve from /proc . . . go off and explore, even if you do not understand all the info, it is good to know where you can get it ;)B) BrunoPS: Brian wrote us that with "lshw" ( if installed on your distro ) you can query all that /proc info and print it to your screen.Try "lshw -html >lshw.html" and you will get a nice html file in your home directory for easy viewing.

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Posted 07 April 2004 - 02:34 PM

IMAGEMAGICKImageMagick is an ultra versatile tool that can  manipulate images on the commandline. You will find it installed by default in most distros. Just to give you an idea what it can do, here is a few examples:import - Take a screenshot of the full desktop:
$ import -window root screenshot.png
( When the command is typed in a 'run-box' and you click on the desktop it will take the full desktop too and you won't see the open terminal where you typed the command )Takes screenshot of an open window:
$ import screenshot.png
Then click on a window.Take a screenshot of any ( detail ) part of the desktop:
$ import screenshot.png
Then make a selection with your right mouse button.A simple way to display the screenshot: ( or any other image )
$ display sceenshot.png
Now comes the real 'magic':mogrify - To transform a .png image to .jepg:
$ mogrify -format jpeg screenshot.png
To transform a whole series of .png images to .jpeg:
$ mogrify -format jpeg *.png
NOTE: Imagemagic can handle and transform all possible image formats ! ( See below )And to make a series of thumbnails:
$ mogrify -geometry 120x120 *.jpg
( Don't worry about disfiguring the image, it will take the first number and adapt the second one to it to make sure the proportions stay the same )WARNING: "mogrify" overwrites the original image, so make a backup before you start ! What else can it do?   - Resize, rotate, sharpen, color reduce, or add special effects to an image  - Create a montage of image thumbnails  - Create a transparent image suitable for use on the Web  - Turn a group of images into a GIF animation sequence  - Create a composite image by combining several separate images  - Draw shapes or text on an image  - Decorate an image with a border or frame  - Describe the format and characteristics of an imageHere are the commands you can use in Imagemagic:

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display is a machine architecture independent image processing and display facility. It can display an image on any workstation display running an X server.import reads an image from any visible window on an X server and outputs it as an image file. You can capture a single window, the entire screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.montage creates a composite by combining several separate images. The images are tiled on the composite image with the name of the image optionally appearing just below the individual tile.convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file with the same or differing image format while applying an arbitrary number of image transformations.mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images. These transforms include image scaling, image rotation, color reduction, and others. The transmogrified image overwrites the original image.identify describes the format and characteristics of one or more image files. It will also report if an image is incomplete or corrupt.composite composites images (blends or merges images together) to create new images.compare compares an image to a reconstructed image.conjure interprets and executes scripts in the Magick Scripting Language (MSL).
The formats ImageMagick can handle:8BIM - Photoshop resource formatAFM - TrueType fontAPP1 - Photoshop resource formatART - PF1: 1st PublisherAVI - Audio/Visual InterleavedAVS - AVS X imageBIE - Joint Bi-level Image experts Group interchange formatBMP - Microsoft Windows bitmap imageCAPTION - Caption (requires separate size info)CMYK - Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black samplesCMYKA - Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and matte samplesCUT - Dr HaloDCM - Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine imageDCX - ZSoft IBM PC multi-page PaintbrushDIB - Microsoft Windows bitmap imageDPS - Display PostScriptDPX - Digital Moving Picture ExchangeEPDF - Encapsulated Portable Document FormatEPI - Adobe Encapsulated PostScript Interchange formatEPS - Adobe Encapsulated PostScriptEPS2 - Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScriptEPS3 - Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScriptEPSF - Adobe Encapsulated PostScriptEPSI - Adobe Encapsulated PostScript Interchange formatEPT - Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with TIFF previewFAX - Group 3 FAXFILE - Uniform Resource LocatorFITS - Flexible Image Transport SystemFPX - FlashPix FormatFTP - Uniform Resource LocatorG3 - Group 3 FAXGIF - CompuServe graphics interchange formatGIF87 - CompuServe graphics interchange format (version 87a)GRADIENT - Gradual passing from one shade to anotherGRANITE - Granite textureGRAY - Raw gray samples H - Internal formatHDF - Hierarchical Data FormatHISTOGRAM - Histogram of the imageHTM - Hypertext Markup Language and a client-side image mapHTML - Hypertext Markup Language and a client-side image mapHTTP - Uniform Resource LocatorICB - Truevision Targa imageICM - ICC Color ProfileICO - Microsoft iconICON - Microsoft iconIPTC - IPTC NewsphotoJBG - Joint Bi-level Image experts Group interchange formatJBIG - Joint Bi-level Image experts Group interchange formatJP2 - JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format SyntaxJPC - JPEG-2000 Code Stream SyntaxJPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group JFIF formatJPG - Joint Photographic Experts Group JFIF formatLABEL - Text image formatLOGO - ImageMagick LogoM2V - MPEG-2 Video StreamMAP - Colormap intensities MAT - MATLAB image formatMATTE - MATTE formatMIFF - Magick image formatMNG - Multiple-image Network GraphicsMONO - Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-byte-first orderMPC - Magick Persistent Cache image formatMPEG - MPEG-1 Video StreamMPG - MPEG-1 Video StreamMPR - Magick Persistent RegistryMSL - Magick Scripting LanguageMTV - MTV Raytracing image formatMVG - Magick Vector GraphicsNETSCAPE - Netscape 216 color cubeNULL - Constant image of uniform colorOTB - On-the-air bitmapP7 - Xv thumbnail formatPAL - 16bit/pixel interleaved YUVPALM - Palm Pixmap formatPBM - Portable bitmap format (black and white)PCD - Photo CDPCDS - Photo CDPCL - Page Control LanguagePCT - Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICTPCX - ZSoft IBM PC PaintbrushPDB - Pilot Image FormatPDF - Portable Document FormatPFA - TrueType fontPFB - TrueType fontPFM - TrueType fontPGM - Portable graymap format (gray scale)PICON - Personal IconPICT - Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICTPIX - Alias/Wavefront RLE image formatPLASMA - Plasma fractal imagePM - X Windows system pixmap (color)PNG - Portable Network GraphicsPNM - Portable anymapPPM - Portable pixmap format (color)PREVIEW - Show a preview an image enhancement, effect, or f/xPS - Adobe PostScriptPS2 - Adobe Level II PostScriptPS3 - Adobe Level III PostScriptPSD - Adobe Photoshop bitmapPTIF - Pyramid encoded TIFFPWP - Seattle Film WorksRAS - SUN RasterfileRGB - Raw red, green, and blue samples RGBA - Raw red, green, blue, and matte samplesRLA - Alias/Wavefront imageRLE - Utah Run length encoded imageROSE - 70x46 Truecolor test imageSCT - Scitex HandShakeSFW - Seattle Film WorksSGI - Irix RGB imageSHTML - Hypertext Markup Language and a client-side image mapSTEGANO - Steganographic imageSUN - SUN RasterfileSVG - Scalable Vector GaphicsTEXT - Raw textTGA - Truevision Targa imageTIF - Tagged Image File FormatTIFF - Tagged Image File FormatTILE - Tile image with a textureTIM - PSX TIMTTF - TrueType fontTXT - Raw textUIL - X-Motif UIL tableUYVY - 16bit/pixel interleaved YUVVDA - Truevision Targa imageVICAR - VICAR rasterfile formatVID - Visual Image DirectoryVIFF - Khoros Visualization imageVST - Truevision Targa imageWBMP - Wireless Bitmap (level 0) imageWMF - Windows MetafileWPG - Word Perfect GraphicsX - X ImageXBM - X Windows system bitmap (black and white)XC - Constant image uniform colorXCF - GIMP imageXML - Scalable Vector GaphicsXPM - X Windows system pixmap (color)XV - Khoros Visualization imageXWD - X Windows system window dump (color)YUV - CCIR 601 4:1:1Now you know why it is called "ImageMagick" :) :DB) BrunoMore info: http://www.imagemagick.orgMore commandline tricks: ImageMagick: A graphics wizard for the command lineAlso: Advanced image editing from the command line with ImageMagickAnd Command-line animations using ImageMagickAnd for the GUI version: Display

#250 OFFLINE   Bruno

Bruno

    Le Professeur Pingouin

  • Admin Emeritus
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Posted 14 April 2004 - 04:01 PM

SECURITY: SERVICES STARTED AT BOOT   Surely you are aware that at boot a good number of services are started, most of them you will see in the bootmessages.  The story is that you do not need all those that are being started, you do need most of them but you can do some weeding out of the ones you do not need and are possibly a security risk. ( It can even reduce the time it takes to boot . . however, do not expect too much here, this will only be a few seconds )  Let me first list a few services you DO need and therefore should NOT deactivate:

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apmd : Advanced Power Management Daemon atd : daemon for the at command. Runs "one-off" scheduled operations outside the cron daemon, as set by the command line. crond : provides a daemon to perform scheduled operations without user interaction daytime : provides the system's notion of the time of day echo : displays a line of text fam : the File Alteration Monitor. This server tracks changes to the filestystem, passing the information along to the appropriate application. keytable : provides the appropriate keyboard mapping partmon : monitors the contents of a partition, preventing writing : 0 byte files when the partition is full random : random number generator syslog : a system-wide logging utility xinetd : the Extended Internet Services Daemon
Now, I will take as an example, Mandrake and PCLos, because they are very similar. Most other distros have equivalent tools to shut services down and stop them from starting at boot. In Slackware it is a bit more complicated but real Slackers will find a way to get the job done anyway.  So, in Drake & PCLos . . . . in the menu under "Configuration" you will find "Configure your Computer" this brings up the Master Control Center ( same as MCC in Drake ) and there under "System" you have "DrakXServices" . . this brings up a GUI with all the services running ( or not ) and there is an info button at every item . . also there is a stop-button for every service where you can temporary stop the service and see if it affects the smooth running of your system ( on a reboot it will start again if you leave the checkmark . . the trick is: Note down every change you make ! Only if you are 100% sure you take away the checkmark !   -- A few services that are running by default in PCLos and that you can safely disable are:  hpoj ( If you do NOT have a HP printer ) nfs ( to comunicate with other Linux computers on a network ) nfslock ( idem ) portmap ( server stuff ) postfix smb ( if you do not run samba to comunicate with a Windows computer on the network ) swat ( also samba related, admin tool for samba ) wlan ( wireless lan config/activate etc. )   -- You DO need: alsa anacron atd crond cups devfsd dm fam gmp internet iptables ( for the firewall to work ) keytable kheader pcscd random rawdevices services slpd sound tmdns xfs xinetd  That is all for today ! . . Next time we will look at Servers/services.  Okay, to give a little hint to you Slackware users: to disable a service from starting at boot look in the /etc/rc.d/ directory . . they will be there, as an example, to safely prevent sendmail from starting at boot ( you do not need sendmail to send mail ) and be sure that you can put it back on if you find that you made a mistake disabling it, do:
# mv /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail.OLD
To restore to the previous situation you simply do
# mv /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail.OLD  /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail
   Have FUN securing your system !   :thumbsup: Bruno




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