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The Terminal Is Where Linux Begins - and Where You Should, Too


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#1 OFFLINE   V.T. Eric Layton

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Posted 16 May 2017 - 12:50 PM

The Terminal Is Where Linux Begins - and Where You Should, Too

By Jonathan Terrasi
Mar 8, 2017 1:43 PM PT



Once you have a sense of the vast potential of Linux, you may be eager to experience it for yourself. Considering the complexity of modern operating systems, though, it can be hard to know where to start.
As with many things, computers can be better understood through a breakdown of their evolution and operation. The terminal is not only where computers began, but also where their real power still resides. I'll provide here a brief introduction to the terminal, how it works, and how you can explore further on your own.

Read the rest of this article HERE.

#2 OFFLINE   crp

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Posted 16 May 2017 - 09:35 PM

Terminals - in xterm , how do you copy and paste ?
Of all tyrannies, a tyranny sincerely exercised for the good of its victims may be the most oppressive. It would be better to live under robber barons than under omnipotent moral busybodies. The robber baron's cruelty may sometimes sleep, his cupidity may at some point be satiated; but those who torment us for our own good will torment us without end for they do so with the approval of their own conscience. ~C. S. Lewis

#3 OFFLINE   abarbarian

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Posted 17 May 2017 - 09:07 AM

View Postcrp, on 16 May 2017 - 09:35 PM, said:

Terminals - in xterm , how do you copy and paste ?

Highlight text with the left mouse to copy and use middle button to paste. Darned if I know how to do it with a keyboard :Muahaha:

Edited by abarbarian, 17 May 2017 - 09:07 AM.

Install ARCH
You'll never need to install it again
"I did and I'm really happy"

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#4 OFFLINE   Ed_P

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 12:27 AM

I highlight the text then use Ctrl+C to copy and Shift+Ins to insert it.

I believe Ctrl+Shift+C and Ctrl+Shift+V work and Ctrl+Insert and Shift+Insert also work.

Edited by Ed_P, 18 May 2017 - 12:38 AM.

Ed

#5 OFFLINE   saturnian

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 03:43 AM

View Postabarbarian, on 17 May 2017 - 09:07 AM, said:

View Postcrp, on 16 May 2017 - 09:35 PM, said:

Terminals - in xterm , how do you copy and paste ?

Highlight text with the left mouse to copy and use middle button to paste. Darned if I know how to do it with a keyboard :Muahaha:

That's what I use - highlight the text, then middle mouse button to paste. With the keyboard, looks like it depends on your keyboard setup; on one computer here, in Debian Jessie, I cannot paste with Shift+Insert. On another, in Antergos, pasting with Shift+Insert works fine.

However, with xterm, any combination with the Ctrl key does NOT work for copying and pasting here. Not like in xfce-terminal and other terminal emulators.

#6 OFFLINE   V.T. Eric Layton

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Posted 18 May 2017 - 11:33 AM

xterm is so 1970s. Why are you attempting to use that thing, anyway? ;)

#7 OFFLINE   saturnian

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Posted 19 May 2017 - 01:50 AM

In Debian, I have Synaptic set to show terminal output when applying changes; does that window use xterm? To copy anything from that window, Ctrl+C does not work so I have to select the text and then I use a middle mouse click to paste (into a text document, for example).

Posted Image

Other than that, as I recall I've had a few installations where the only thing that was available at first was xterm. Or so I thought. I think I remember that in a Debian netinstall, when I've added only Openbox, I'd see xterm listed in the Debian menu. In that type of situation, though, one of the first things I'd do is install xfce4-terminal or something.

#8 OFFLINE   V.T. Eric Layton

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Posted 19 May 2017 - 09:49 AM

Umm... I don't think that is a terminal that you're seeing there. It's just a display tool for Synaptic. Do you get a cursor? Can you actually type commands in that window?

#9 OFFLINE   crp

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Posted 19 May 2017 - 10:00 AM

View PostV.T. Eric Layton, on 18 May 2017 - 11:33 AM, said:

xterm is so 1970s. Why are you attempting to use that thing, anyway? ;)
it is the default terminal on the system when selecting from GUI menu. I'll try to come back later today with the OS and the GUI.

Edited by crp, 19 May 2017 - 10:01 AM.

Of all tyrannies, a tyranny sincerely exercised for the good of its victims may be the most oppressive. It would be better to live under robber barons than under omnipotent moral busybodies. The robber baron's cruelty may sometimes sleep, his cupidity may at some point be satiated; but those who torment us for our own good will torment us without end for they do so with the approval of their own conscience. ~C. S. Lewis

#10 OFFLINE   saturnian

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Posted 19 May 2017 - 11:20 PM

View PostV.T. Eric Layton, on 19 May 2017 - 09:49 AM, said:

Umm... I don't think that is a terminal that you're seeing there. It's just a display tool for Synaptic. Do you get a cursor? Can you actually type commands in that window?

Right, it isn't a terminal, it's a window that displays "terminal output." I wrote, "does that window use xterm?" which is probably the wrong way of looking at things.

Again, that window seems very similar to xterm when I try to copy text from it -- same behavior, Ctrl-C doesn't work, and neither does Shift-Ctrl-C, so of course I can't use Ctrl-V to paste selected text from that window into a text editor. But simply highlighting text from that window and then pasting it into a text editor with the middle mouse button does work. Maybe Synaptic is getting its output for that window from xterm? I don't know. It does seem to be the same type of behavior as described here:

Quote

The “PRIMARY” selection buffer receives data when the user highlights text with the mouse. The text in this buffer is pasted when the user presses the middle mouse button in an application’s text entry field. This cut-and-paste buffer is a legacy function which new users are generally not told about, in the interests of avoiding mass confusion. Most modern applications support this buffer. This is the only buffer used by xterm.

https://www.starnet....sting-in-xterm/

And:

https://en.wikipedia...indow_selection
https://wiki.archlin...RY_or_CLIPBOARD

#11 OFFLINE   abarbarian

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Posted 20 May 2017 - 09:56 AM

Eric your post inspired me to try my hand at some command line creations.

Like so

@mx16reserve:~/ZZZ/Picture conversions
$ ffmpeg -framerate 1 -i tp-%02d.jpg -c:v libx264 -profile:v high -crf 20 -pix_fmt yuv420p output.mp4
ffmpeg version 2.8.6-1mx150+1 Copyright (c) 2000-2016 the FFmpeg developers
  built with gcc 4.9.2 (Debian 4.9.2-10)
  configuration: --prefix=/usr --extra-version=1mx150+1 --build-suffix=-ffmpeg --toolchain=hardened --libdir=/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu --incdir=/usr/include/i386-linux-gnu --cc=cc --cxx=g++ --enable-gpl --enable-shared --disable-stripping --disable-decoder=libopenjpeg --disable-decoder=libschroedinger --enable-avresample --enable-avisynth --enable-gnutls --enable-ladspa --enable-libass --enable-libbluray --enable-libbs2b --enable-libcaca --enable-libcdio --enable-libflite --enable-libfontconfig --enable-libfreetype --enable-libfribidi --enable-libgme --enable-libgsm --enable-libmodplug --enable-libmp3lame --enable-libopenjpeg --enable-libopus --enable-libpulse --enable-librtmp --enable-libschroedinger --enable-libshine --enable-libsnappy --enable-libsoxr --enable-libspeex --enable-libssh --enable-libtheora --enable-libtwolame --enable-libvorbis --enable-libvpx --enable-libwavpack --enable-libwebp --enable-libx265 --enable-libxvid --enable-libzvbi --enable-openal --enable-opengl --enable-x11grab --enable-libdc1394 --enable-libiec61883 --enable-libzmq --enable-frei0r --enable-libx264 --enable-libopencv --disable-i686
  libavutil	  54. 31.100 / 54. 31.100
  libavcodec	 56. 60.100 / 56. 60.100
  libavformat	56. 40.101 / 56. 40.101
  libavdevice	56.  4.100 / 56.  4.100
  libavfilter	 5. 40.101 /  5. 40.101
  libavresample   2.  1.  0 /  2.  1.  0
  libswscale	  3.  1.101 /  3.  1.101
  libswresample   1.  2.101 /  1.  2.101
  libpostproc	53.  3.100 / 53.  3.100
[mjpeg @ 0x9951840] Changeing bps to 8
Input #0, image2, from 'tp-%02d.jpg':
  Duration: 00:00:09.00, start: 0.000000, bitrate: N/A
	Stream #0:0: Video: mjpeg, yuvj422p(pc, bt470bg/unknown/unknown), 1812x1200 [SAR 300:300 DAR 151:100], 1 fps, 1 tbr, 1 tbn, 1 tbc
[swscaler @ 0x9960e20] deprecated pixel format used, make sure you did set range correctly
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] using SAR=1/1
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] using cpu capabilities: MMX2 SSE2 SSE3 Cache64
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] profile High, level 4.2
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] 264 - core 142 r2431 a5831aa - H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codec - Copyleft 2003-2014 - http://www.videolan.org/x264.html - options: cabac=1 ref=3 deblock=1:0:0 analyse=0x3:0x113 me=hex subme=7 psy=1 psy_rd=1.00:0.00 mixed_ref=1 me_range=16 chroma_me=1 trellis=1 8x8dct=1 cqm=0 deadzone=21,11 fast_pskip=1 chroma_qp_offset=-2 threads=3 lookahead_threads=1 sliced_threads=0 nr=0 decimate=1 interlaced=0 bluray_compat=0 constrained_intra=0 bframes=3 b_pyramid=2 b_adapt=1 b_bias=0 direct=1 weightb=1 open_gop=0 weightp=2 keyint=250 keyint_min=1 scenecut=40 intra_refresh=0 rc_lookahead=40 rc=crf mbtree=1 crf=20.0 qcomp=0.60 qpmin=0 qpmax=69 qpstep=4 ip_ratio=1.40 aq=1:1.00
Output #0, mp4, to 'output.mp4':
  Metadata:
	encoder		 : Lavf56.40.101
	Stream #0:0: Video: h264 (libx264) ([33][0][0][0] / 0x0021), yuv420p, 1812x1200 [SAR 1:1 DAR 151:100], q=-1--1, 1 fps, 16384 tbn, 1 tbc
	Metadata:
	  encoder		 : Lavc56.60.100 libx264
Stream mapping:
  Stream #0:0 -> #0:0 (mjpeg (native) -> h264 (libx264))
Press [q] to stop, [?] for help
frame=	9 fps=0.9 q=-1.0 Lsize=	2896kB time=00:00:07.00 bitrate=3389.2kbits/s   
video:2895kB audio:0kB subtitle:0kB other streams:0kB global headers:0kB muxing overhead: 0.031100%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] frame I:3	 Avg QP: 9.70  size:472415
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] frame P:5	 Avg QP:12.25  size:257826
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] frame B:1	 Avg QP:12.98  size:257534
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] consecutive B-frames: 77.8% 22.2%  0.0%  0.0%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] mb I  I16..4:  7.6% 66.9% 25.5%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] mb P  I16..4:  4.5% 41.1%  7.9%  P16..4: 14.1% 19.8% 11.7%  0.0%  0.0%	skip: 1.0%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] mb B  I16..4:  1.3% 32.8%  1.9%  B16..8: 20.9% 20.6%  8.5%  direct:13.6%  skip: 0.4%  L0:20.6% L1:61.0% BI:18.3%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] 8x8 transform intra:72.8% inter:52.7%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] coded y,uvDC,uvAC intra: 97.0% 93.7% 91.1% inter: 82.1% 67.1% 29.3%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] i16 v,h,dc,p:  5%  3%  8% 84%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] i8 v,h,dc,ddl,ddr,vr,hd,vl,hu: 17% 14% 16%  7% 10% 10%  9% 10%  9%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] i4 v,h,dc,ddl,ddr,vr,hd,vl,hu: 14% 13% 12%  8% 14% 13% 10%  9%  7%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] i8c dc,h,v,p: 47% 22% 17% 13%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] Weighted P-Frames: Y:20.0% UV:0.0%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] ref P L0: 95.9%  1.1%  1.7%  1.3%
[libx264 @ 0x9953ca0] kb/s:2634.58

which gave me this

https://www.dropbox....output.mp4?dl=0

on this old Dell

$ inxi -C
CPU:	   Single core Intel Pentium 4 (-HT-) cache: 1024 KB
		   clock speeds: max: 2992 MHz 1: 2992 MHz 2: 2992 MHz

The code ran pretty quickly which suprised me and cpu usage was between 60% and 88% which left me enough umph to surf.


:breakfast:
Install ARCH
You'll never need to install it again
"I did and I'm really happy"

Posted Image~~~~~~~~~~~~~Posted Image

#12 OFFLINE   crp

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Posted 23 May 2017 - 07:50 PM

View Postcrp, on 19 May 2017 - 10:00 AM, said:

View PostV.T. Eric Layton, on 18 May 2017 - 11:33 AM, said:

xterm is so 1970s. Why are you attempting to use that thing, anyway? ;)
it is the default terminal on the system when selecting from GUI menu. I'll try to come back later today with the OS and the GUI.
okay, it is Debian Wheezy , desktop is KDE Plasma. There is xterm and uxterm - have no idea what the difference is. No menu for copying and pasting. Shift-Insert does paste (as does middle mouse button) but still have not figured out highlighting and copying with keyboard only.
Of all tyrannies, a tyranny sincerely exercised for the good of its victims may be the most oppressive. It would be better to live under robber barons than under omnipotent moral busybodies. The robber baron's cruelty may sometimes sleep, his cupidity may at some point be satiated; but those who torment us for our own good will torment us without end for they do so with the approval of their own conscience. ~C. S. Lewis

#13 OFFLINE   abarbarian

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Posted 24 May 2017 - 08:10 AM

View Postcrp, on 23 May 2017 - 07:50 PM, said:

View Postcrp, on 19 May 2017 - 10:00 AM, said:

View PostV.T. Eric Layton, on 18 May 2017 - 11:33 AM, said:

xterm is so 1970s. Why are you attempting to use that thing, anyway? ;)
it is the default terminal on the system when selecting from GUI menu. I'll try to come back later today with the OS and the GUI.
okay, it is Debian Wheezy , desktop is KDE Plasma. There is xterm and uxterm - have no idea what the difference is. No menu for copying and pasting. Shift-Insert does paste (as does middle mouse button) but still have not figured out highlighting and copying with keyboard only.

Q  There is xterm and uxterm - have no idea what the difference is.
A below
https://lists.debian...1/msg00780.html

Q  but still have not figured out highlighting and copying with keyboard only.
A possibly below

https://unix.stackex...bian-virtualbox

:whistling:
Install ARCH
You'll never need to install it again
"I did and I'm really happy"

Posted Image~~~~~~~~~~~~~Posted Image

#14 OFFLINE   V.T. Eric Layton

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Posted 24 May 2017 - 12:33 PM

If you're using KDE, you should have Konsole installed. That's a much better terminal emulator than xterm.




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